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Contributing Founders

We all stand on the shoulders of giants that went before us.

(c) 2010 by John W. Apsley, II, MD(E), ND, DC email:



Clinical Detoxification Authorities:


Dana Flavin, MD, PhD

John R. Christopher, MH, ND

Jeffery Bland, PhD


Absolute Detoxification - Short Historical Bibliography of Cell Detoxification 

1)    Carrel A. Technique for Cultivating a Large Quantity of Tissue, J Exp Med,1912;15:393. 

2)    Lambert RA. The Effect of Dilution of Plasma Medium on the Growth and Fat Accumulation of Cells in Tissue Cultures, J Exp Med, 1914;14:398.  

3)    Ebeling AH. The Effect of the Variation in the Osmotic Tension and of the Dilution of Culture Media on the Cell Proliferation of Connective Tissue.,J Exp Med., 1914;20:130. 

4)    Fischer A. Growth of Fibroblasts and Hydrogen Ion Concentration of the Medium, J Exp Med, 1921;34:447.  

5)    Idem, Contributions to the Biology of Tissue Cells, II: The Relation of Cell Crowding to Tissue Growth in vitro, 1923;38:667-672.  

6)    Ibid. A Functional Study of Cell Division in Cultures of Fibroblasts, J Cancer Res, 1925;9:50.  

7)    Miszurski B. Researches on the Influence of Embryo Extract of Different Ages on Growth and Differentiation of Cartilage and Bone in vitro, Arch D'Anat Microscop,1939-40;35:223.



Clinical Supra-Oxygenation Authorities:


David Berg, MS

William Koch, MD, PhD

Kazuhiko Asai, PhD

Manfred von Ardenne, PhD


Short Historical Bibliograpy – Supra-Oxygenation


1)    Warburg O. Physikalische Chemie der Zellatmung, Biochem Ztschr, 1921;119:134-166.

2)    Warburg O. The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment, Science, 1928;68:437-443.

3)    Richardson HB. Respiratory Quotient, Physiol Rev, 1929;9:61-125.

4)    Warburg O. On the Origin of Cancer Cells, Science, 1956;123:309-15.

5)    Warburg O. New Methods of Cell Physiology: Applied to Cancer, Photosynthesis, and Mechanism of X-Ray Action. Interscience Publishers, John Wiley & Sons, NY, 1962;p. 322-346.

6)    Warburg O. The Causes of Cancer, Colloq Ges Physiol Chem, 1966;17:1-16.

7)    Warburg O. The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer," [Taken from the meeting of the Nobel Laureates, June 30th, 1966]. Lindau Lecture, English ed. by D. Burk, K. Triltsch, Wurzburg, Germany, 1969.

8)    Massey P. Dietary supplements. Medical Clinics of North America 2002;86:127-147.

9)    Maskarinec G, Murphy S, Shumay DM, Kakai H. Dietary changes among cancer survivors. Eur J Cancer Care 2001;10:12-20.

10) Gerber GB, Leonard A. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of germanium compounds. Mutation Research 1997;387(3):141-146.

11) Jao S-W, Lee W, Ho Y-S. Effect of germanium on 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced intestinal cancer in rats. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 1990;33:99-104.

12) Sato I, Yuan BD, Nishimura T, Tanaka N. Inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis in association with modification of immune response by novel organic germanium compounds. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 1985;4(2):159-168.

13) Komuro T, Kakimoto N, Katayama T, Hazato T. Inhibitory effects of Ge-132 (carboxyethyl germanium sesquioxide) derivatives on enkephalin-degrading enzymes. Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry 1986;8(5):379-386.

14) Miyao K, Onishi T, Asai K, Tomizawa S, Suzuki F. Toxicology and Phase I studies on a novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132. In: Nelson JD, Grassi C, eds. Current Chemotherapy and Infectious Diseases. Washington, D.C.: American Society of Microbiology, 1980: 1527-1529.

15) Fujita H, Seto Y. Antiviral activity of 3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer (SK-818). Pharmacometrics 1990;39(4):385-388.

16) Asano K, Yamano M, Haruyama K, et al. Influence of propagermanium (SK-818) on chemically induced renal lesions in rats. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences 1994;19:131-143.

17) Hess B, Raisin J, Zimmermann A, et al. Tubulointerstitial nephropathy persisting 20 months after discontinuation of chronic intake of germanium lactate citrate. American Journal of Kidney Diseases 1993;21:548-552.

18) Krapf R, Schaffner T, Iten PX. Abuse of germanium associated with fatal lactic acidosis. Nephron 1992;62:351-356.

19) Luck BE, Mann H, Melzer H, Dunemann L, Begerow J. Renal and other organ failure caused by germanium intoxication. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 1999;(14):2464-2468.

20) Schauss AG. Nephrotoxicity in humans by the ultratrace element germanium. Renal Failure 1991;13(1):1-4.

21) Okuda S, Kiyama S, Oh Y, et al. Persistent renal dysfunction induced by chronic intake of germanium-containing compounds. Current Therapeutic Research 1987;41:265-275.

22) Matsusaka T, Fujii M, Nakano T, et al. Germanium-induced nephropathy: report of two cases and review of the literature. Clinical Nephrology 1988;30(6-1988):341-345.

23) Sanai T, Okuda S, Onoyama K, et al. Germanium dioxide-induced nephropathy: A new type of renal disease. Nephron 1990;54:53-60.

24) Tao SH, Bolger PM. Hazard assessment of germanium supplements. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 1997;25(3):211-219.

25) Takeuchi A, Yoshizawa N, Oshima S, et al. Nephrotoxicity of germanium compounds: Report of a case and review of the literature. Nephron 1992;60:436-442.

26) Schauss A, G. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity in humans from organogermanium compounds and germanium dioxide. Biological Trace Element Research 1991;29(3):267-280.

27) Anger F, Anger JP, Guillou L, Papillon A. Subchronic oral toxicity (six months) of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide in rats. Applied Organometallic Chemistry 1992;6(3):267-272.

28) van der Spoel JI, Sticker BHC, Esseveld MR, Schipper MEI. Dangers of dietary germanium supplements. The Lancet 1990;336:117.

29) Raisin J, Hess B, M. B, et al. Toxicity of an organic germanium compound: deleterious consequences of a "natural remedy". Schweiz Med Wochenschr 1992;122(1-2):11-13.

30) Omata M, Kikuchi M, Higuchi C, et al. Durg-induced nephropathy: Our recent clinical experience. In: Tanabe T, Hook JB, Endow H, eds. Nephrotixicity of Antibiotics and Immunosuppressants. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., 1986: 15-20.

31) Okada K, Okagawa K, Kawakami K, et al. Renal failure caused by long-term use of a germanium preparation as an elixir. Clinical Nephrology 1989;31:219-224.

32) Taylor A, Dickson F, Dobrota M. Effects of germanium health supplements in the rat. Clinical Chemistry 1991;37(6):985.

33) Nagata N, Yoneyama T, Yanagida K. Accumulation of germanium in the tissues of a long-term user of germanium preparation dead of acute renal failure. J Toxicol Sci 1985;10:333-341.

34) Obara K, Saito T, Sato H, et al. Germanium poisoning: Clinical symptoms and renal damage caused by long-term intake of germanium. Japanese Journal of Medicine 1991;30:67-72.

35) Shinogi M, Masaki T, Mori I. Determination and biokinetics of germanium in mouse tissues by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 1989;3:25-28.

36) Sanai T, Onoyama K, Osato S, et al. Dose dependency of germanium dioxide-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Nephron 1991;57(3):349-354.

37) Sanai T, Okuda S, Onoyama K, et al. Chronic tubulointerstitial changes induced by germanium dioxide in comparison with carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide. Kidney International 1991;40:882-890.

38) Masaki Y, Kumano K, Iwamura M, et al. Protective effect of an organic germanium compound on warm ischemia and prolonged kidney preservation. Transplanatation Proceedings 1989;21:1250-1251.

39) Wakabayashi Y. Effect of germanium-132 on low-density lipoprotein oxidation and atherosclerosis in Kurosawa and Kusanagi hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2001;65(8):1893-1896.

40) Yang MK, Kim YG. Protective role of germanium-132 against paraquat-induced oxidative stress in the livers of senescence-accelerated mice. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health 1999;12(58):289-297.

41) Unakar NJ, Tsui J, Johnson M. Effect of pretreatment of germanium-132 on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and galactose cataracts. Current Eye Research 1997;16(8):832-837.

42) Fujii A, Kuboyama N, Yamane J, Nakao S, Furukawa Y. Effect of organic germanium compound (Ge-132) on experimental osteoporosis in rats. General Pharmacology 1993;24(6):1527-1532.

43) Fujita H, Kurono M, Toyoshima S. Effect of 3-oxygermylpropionic acid polymer (SK-818) on the incidence of spontaneous leukemia in AKR mice. Pharmacometrics 1990;39(4):389-395.

44) Aso H, Suzuki F, Ebina T, Ishida N. Antiviral activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice infected with influenza virus. Journal of Biological Response Modifiers 1989;8(2):180-189.

45) Aso H, Shibuya E, Suzuki F, et al. Antitumor effect in mice of an organic germanium compound (Ge-132) when different administration methods are used. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1985;12(12):2345-2351.

46) Kumano N, Ishikawa T, Koinumaru S, et al. Antitumor effect of the organogermanium compound Ge-132 on the Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine 1985;146(1):97-104.

47) Kobayashi H, Komuro T, Furue H. Effect of combination immunochemotherapy with an organogermanium compound, Ge-132, and antitumor agents on C57BL/6 mice bearing Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL). Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1986;13(8):2588-2593.

48) Chen F, Zhang Q. Inhibitive effects of spirulina on aberrant crypts in colon induced by dimethylhydrazine. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1995;29(1):13-17.

49) Song WS. Experimental study on prevention of the colorectal cancer by China medical stone and the organogermanium compound. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi 1993;27(5):286-289.

50) Jang JJ, Cho KJ, Lee YS, Bae JH. Modifying responses of allyl sulfide, indole-3-carbinol and germanium in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis 1991;4:691-695.

51) Ono M, Oka T, Yoshihara H, et al. Effect of NK-421 (bestatin) and Ge-132 on the cytotoxicity of spleen cells obtained from the tumor-bearing mice. Gan To Kangaku Ryoho 1982;9(10):1771-1777.

52) Aso H, Suzuki F, Yamaguchi T, Hayashi Y, Ebina T, Ishida N. Induction of interferon and activation of NK cells and macrophages in mice by oral administration of Ge-132, an organic germanium compound. Microbiology and Immunology 1985;29(1):65-74.

53) Nakada Y, Kosaka T, Kuwabara M, Tanaka S, Sato K, Koide F. Effects of 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) as an immunological modifier of post-surgical immunosuppression in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 1993;55(5):795-799.

54) Suzuki F, Brutkiewicz RR, Pollard RB. Ability of sera from mice treated with Ge-132, an organic germanium compound, to inhibit experimental murine ascites tumours. British Journal of Cancer 1985;52(5):757-763.

55) Suzuki F, Brutkiewicz RR, Pollard RB. Importance ot T-cells and macrophages in the antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Research 1985;5(5):479-483.

56) Suzuki F, Pollard RB. Prevention of suppressed interferon gamma production in thermally injured mice by administration of a novel organogermanium compound, Ge-132. Journal of Interferon Research 1984;4(2):223-233.

57) Suzuki F. Suppression of tumor growth by peritoneal macrophages isolated from mice treated with carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1985;12(11):2122-2128.

58) Suzuki F, Brutkiewicz RR, Pollard RB. Cooperation of lymphokine(s) and macrophages in expression of antitumor activity of carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide (Ge-132). Anticancer Research 1986;6(2):177-182.

59) Suzuki F. Antitumor mechanisms of carboxyethyl-germanium sesquioxide (Ge-132) in mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1987;14(1):127-134.

60) Ming X, Yin H, Zhu Z. Effect of dietary selenium and germanium on the precancerous lesion in rat glandular stomach induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi 1996;34(4):221-223.

61) Ikemoto K, Kobayashi M, Fukimoto T, Morimatsu M, Pollard RB, Suzuki F. 2-carboxyethylgermanium sesquioxide, a synthetic organogermanium compound, as an inducer of contrasuppressor T cells. Experientia 1996;15(52):159-166.

62) Sato I, Nishimura T, Kakimoto N, Suzuki H, Tanaka N. Prevention of pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and activation of murine macrophages by a novel organic germanium compound, PCAGeS. Biological Response Modifiers 1988;7(1):1-5.

63) Tanaka N, Ohida J, Ono M, et al. Augmentation of NK activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of cancer patients by intermittent Ge-132 administration. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 1984;11(6):1303-1306.

64) Mainwaring MG, Poor C, Zander DS, Harman E. Complete remission of pulmonary spindle cell carcinoma after treatment with oral germanium sesquioxide. Chest 2000;117:591-593.

65) Saiers JH, Slavik M, Stephens RL, Crawford ED. Therapy for advanced renal cell cancer with spirogermanium: A Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer Treatment Reports 1987;71(2):207-208.

66) Falkson G, Falkson HC. Phase II trial of spirogermanium for treatment of advanced breast cancer. Cancer Treatment Reports 1983;67(2):189-190.

67) Eisenhauer E, Quirt I, Connors JM, Maroun J, Skillings J. A phase II study of spirogermanium as second line therapy in patients with poor prognosis lymphoma: An NCI Canada Clinical Trials Group study. Investigational New Drugs 1985;3(3):307-310.

68) Eisenhauer E, Kerr I, Bodurtha A, et al. A phase II study of spirogermanium in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma.: An NCI Canada Clinical Trials Group study. Investigational New Drugs 1985;3(3):303-305.

69) Goodwin JW, Crowley J, Tranum B, et al. Phase II trial of spirogermanium in central nervous system tumors: A Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer Treatment Reports 1987;71(1):99 – 100.

70) Ettinger DS, Finkelstein DM, Donehower RC, et al. Phase II study of N-methylformamide, spirogermanium, and 4-demethoxydaunorubicin in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (EST 3583): An Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study. Med Pediatr Oncol 1989;17(3):197-201.

71) Vogelzang NJ, Gesme DH, Kennedy BJ. A phase II study of spirogermanium in advanced human malignancy. American Journal of Clinical Oncology 1985;8(4):341-344.

72) McMaster M, Greco F, Johnson D, Hainsworth J. An evaluation of combination 5-fluorouracil and spirogermanium in the treatment of advanced colorectal carcinoma. Investigational New Drugs 1990;8:87-92.

73) Mirabelli C, Badger A, Sung C, et al. Pharmacological activities of spirogermanium and other structurally related azaspiranes: Effects on tumor cell and macrophage functions. Anticancer Drug Design 1989;3:231-242.

74) Ardenne Mv. Oxygen Multistep Therapy: Physiological and Technical Foundations. Translated by Paula Kirby and Winfred Kruger, Geirg Thieme Verlag, NY, 1990. See:

75) (Also see:



Clinical Raw Food Factors (True Superfoods) & Bio-identical hormone replacement therapy Authorities:


John W. Apsley, II, MD(E), ND, DC

Mark Starr, MD

Virginia Osborne, ND

Dana Flavin, MD, PhD

Henry R. Harrower, MD

Royal Lee, DDS

William Hansen, PhD


Short Historical Bibliography – Clinical Superfood Factors

1)    Robertson TB. Chemical Basis of Growth and Senescence. J.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1923.

2)    Turck FB. The Action of the Living Cell. MacMillan Co., NY, 1933.

3)    Burrows MT. The Growth of Tissues of the Chick Embryo Outside the Animal Body with Special Reference to the Nervous System, J Exp Zoology, 1911;10:63-83.

4)    Burrows MT. Some Factors Regulating Growth, Anat Rec, 1916-17 Jan;11:335.

5)    Idem. On the Source of Vitamin A in Nature, Am J Physiol, 1926;77:38-50.

6)    Ingebrigtsen R. Studies Upon Characteristics of Different Culture Media and their Influence Upon the Growth of Tissue Outside of the Organism, J Exp Med, 1912;16:421.

7)    Carrel A, and Burrows MT. Cultivation of Adult Tissues and Organs Outside the Body, JAMA, 1910;55:1379.

8)    Carrel A, and Burrows MT. Cultivation of Tissues in vitro and its Technique, J Exp Med, 1911;13:387-395.

9)    Idem. An Addition to the Technique of the Cultivation of Tissues in vitro, 1911;14:244-247.

10) Carrel A. Rejuvenation of Cultures of Tissues, JAMA, 57:1611, 1911.

11) Idem. Pure Cultures of Cells, J Exp Med, 1912;16:165-8.

12) Carrel A. Technique for Cultivating a Large Quantity of Tissue, J Exp Med, 1912;15:393.

13) Carrel A. On the Permanent Life of Tissues Outside of the Organism, J Exp Med, 1912 May;15:516.

14) Carrel A. Pure Cultures of Cells, J Exp Med, 1912;16:165168.

15) Carrel A. Artificial Activation of the Growth in vitro of Connective Tissue, J Exp Med, 1913;17:14-19.

16) Carrel A. Contributions to the Study of the Mechanisms of the Growth of Connective Tissue, J Exp Med, 1913 Sep;18:287.

17) Carrel A. Present Condition of a Strain of Connective tissue Twenty-Eight Months Old, J Exp Med, 1914;20:1-2.

18) Carrel A. Cicatrization of Wounds, XII: Factors Initiating Regeneration, J Exp Med, 1921 Nov;34:425.

19) Carrel A, and Ebeling AH. Multiplication of Fibroblasts in vitro, J Exp Med, 1921 Oct;34:317.

20) Idem. Age and Multiplication of Fibroblasts, 1921 Dec;34:599.

21) Idem. Heterogenic Serum, Age and Multiplication of Fibroblasts, 1922;35:17.

22) Carrel A, and Ebeling AH. Heat and Growth-Inhibiting Action of Serum, J Exp Med, 1922;35:647-656.

23) Idem. Pure Cultivation of Large Mononuclear Leucocytes, 1922;36:365-377.

24) Carrel A. Growth-Promoting Function of Leukocytes, J Exp Med,1922 Oct; 36:385.

25) Carrel A, and Ebeling AH. Action of Shaken Serum on Homologous Fibroblasts, J Exp Med, 1922;36:399-403.

26) Idem. Leucocytic Secretions, 1922 Dec;36:645.

27) Idem. Action on Fibroblasts on Extracts of Homologous and Heterologous Tissues, 1923;23:499-511.

28) Idem. Antagonistic Growth-Activating and Growth-Inhibiting Principles in Serum, 1923 May;37:653.

29) Idem. Action of Serum on Fibroblasts in vitro, 1923;37:759.

30) Idem. Antagonistic Growth Principles of Serum and Their Relation to Old Age, 1923;38:419-425.

31) Idem. Survival and Growth of Fibroblasts in vitro, 1923 Nov;38:487.

32) Idem. Action of Serum on Lymphocytes in vitro, 1923 Nov;38:513.

33) Carrel A. A Method for the Physiological Study of Tissues in vitro, J Exp Med, 1923 Oct;38:407.

34) Carrel A. Measurement of the Inherent Energy of Tissues, J Exp Med, 1923 Nov;38:521.

35) Carrel A. Leukocytic Trephones, JAMA 1924 Jan 26;82(4):256-257.

36) Carrel A. Tissue Culture and Cell Physiology, Physiol Rev, 1924;4:1-17.

37) Carrel A, and Ebeling AH. J Exp Med, 1926;44(2):261.

38) Carrel, A., and Ebeling, A.H., J Exp Med, 44(3):285, 1926.

39) Carrel A. The Culture of Organs, 1938.

40) Baker LE, and Carrel A. Lipoids as the Growth-Inhibiting Factor in Serum, J Exp Med,1925;42:143-154.

41) Ibid. Effect of the Amino Acids and Dialyzable Constituents of Embryonic Tissue Juice on the Growth of Fibroblasts, J Exp Med, 1926;44:397-407.

42) Ibid. The Effect of Digests of Pure Proteins on Cell Proliferation, J Exp Med, 1928;47:353-70.

43) Idem. Effect of Liver and Pituitary Digests on the Proliferation of Sarcomatous Fibroblasts of the Rat, J Exp Med, 1928; 47(1):371.

44) Baker LE. Causes of the Discontinuity of Growth of Fibroblasts Cultivated in Embryo Juice, Proc Soc Exp Biol And Med, 1938;39:369-371.

45) Walton AJ. The Effect of Various Tissue Extracts Upon the Growth of Adult mammalian Cells in vitro, J Exp Med, 1914;20:554.

46) Du Nouy PL. Mathematical Expression of the Curve Representing Cicatrization, J Exp Med, 1916;24:451.

47) Idem. The Relation Between the Age of the Patient, the Area of the Wound and the Index of Cicatrization, 1916;24:461.

48) Ebeling AH. The Permanent Life of Connective Tissue Outside of the Organism, J Exp Med, 1913;17:273-85.

49) Idem. The Effect of the Variation in the Osmotic Tension and of the Dilution of Culture Media on the Cell Proliferation of Connective Tissue, 1914;20:130.

50) Idem. A Strain of Connective Tissue Seven Years Old, 1919;30:531.

51) Idem. Measurement of the Growth of Tissues in vitro, 1921;24:231.

52) Idem. Fibrin and Serum as a Culture Medium, 1921;33:641.

53) Idem. A Ten Year Old Strain of Fibroblasts, 1922;35:755.

54) Ebeling AH, and Fisher A. Mixed Cultures of Pure Strains of Fibroblasts and Epithelial Cells, J Exp Med, 1922;36:285-291.

55) Fischer A. Growth of Fibroblasts and Hydrogen Ion Concentration of the Medium, J Exp Med,1921; 34:447.

56) Fischer A. Three Month Old Strain of Epithelium, J Exp Med, 1922;35:367-371.

57) Idem. A Pure Strain of Cartilage Cells in vitro, 1922;36:379.

58) Idem. Cultures of Organized Tissues, 1922;36:393.

59) Idem. Action of Antigen on Fibroblasts in vitro II, 1922;36:535.

60) Idem. Contributions to the Biology of Tissue Cells. I: The Relation of Cell Crowding to Tissue Growth in vitro, J Exp Med, 1923;38:667-672.

61) Fischer A. A Functional Study of Cell Division in Cultures of Fibroblasts, J Cancer Res, 1925;9:50.




65) Carrel A. Significance. Can Med Assoc J. 1928 Mar;18(3):327-9.


67) Fischer A, and Parker RC. The Occurrence of Mitoses in Normal and Malignant Tissues in vitro, Brit J Exp Patho, 1929;10:312-21.

68) Fischer A. Virchow's Arch, 1930;279:94.

69) Fischer A, and Astrup T. Arch Exp Zellforsch, 1939;23:76.

70) Fisher A. Nature of the Growth-Accelerating Substance of Animal Tissue Cells, Nature, 1939;144:113.

71) Fischer A. Die Bedeutung der Aminosauren fur die Gewebezellen in vitro, Acta Physiol Scand, 1941;2:143.

72) Fisher A. Nature of the Growth-Promoting Substances in Embryonic Tissue Juice: A Review of the Author's Investigations, Acta Physiol Scand, 1941;3:54-70.

73) Caspersson T, and Schultz J. Pentose Nucleotides in the Cytoplasm of Growing Tissues, Nature, 1939;143:602-603.

74) Parker RC. The Cultivation of Tissues for Prolonged Periods in Single Flasks, J Exp Med, 1936;64:121-130.

75) Miszurski B. Researches on the Influence of Embryo Extract of Different Ages on Growth and Differentiation of Cartilage and Bone in vitro, Arch D'Anat Microscop, 1939-40;35:223.

76) Brues AM, et al. Growth Inhibitor by Substance in Liver, J Exp Med, 1940;71:423-438.

77) Doljanski L, and Hoffman RS. The Growth Activating Effect of Extract of Adult Tissue Growth in Vitro: III, The Cultivation for Prolonged Periods, Growth, 1943;7: 67-72.

78) Doljanski L, et al. Stimulation de la croissance de colonies de fibroblasts in vitro par des extraits de tissue adulte. L'action des extraits. C.R. Soc Biol, 1939;131:432-434.

79) Doljanski L, et al. The Effects in Heterologous Adult Tissue on Cell Growth in vitro and Their Use in Wound Healing, Nature, 1942;150:23-24.

80) Hoffman R, et al. The Growth Activating Effect of Extracts of Adult Tissue on Fibroblast Colonies in vitro: I., Growth, 1939;3:61-71.

81) Hoffman R, et al. The Growth Activating Effect of Extracts of Adult Tissue on Fibroblast Colonies in vitro: II., Growth, 1940;4:207-221.

82) Hoffman R, et al. Growth Activation of Cell Colonies in vitro by Extracts of Adult Tissues, Nature, 1939;143:764-765.

83) Swim HE, and Parker R F. Culture Characteristics of Human Fibroblasts Propagated Serially, Am J Hyg,1957; 66:235-243.

84) Hayflick L, and Moorehead PS. Expl. Cell Res., 1961;25:585.

85)Hayflick L, et al. The Serial Cultivation of Human Diploid Cell Strains, Experimental Cell Research 1961;25:585-621.

86) Hayflick L. Human Cells and Aging, Sci Amer, 1968 Mar:218;

87) Ibid. The Cell Biology of Aging, NEJM, 1976;295:302-8.

88) Hayflick L. The Cellular Basis for Biological Aging, in: Handbook of the Biology of Aging, ed. C.E. Finch and L. Hayflick, (N.Y.: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1977), p. 159.


Clinical BioEnergetics Authorities:


Mark Wolynn, MS

Jerry Tennant, MD

Jacques-Arsne d'Arsonval, MD, PhD

George Crile, MD

Wilhelm Riech, MD

Robert O. Becker, MD

Bjorn Nordenstrm, MD

William Philpott, MD


Short History Bibliography - Bioenergetics


1)    Crile GW. Phylogenetic Association in Relation to Certain Medical Problems, (Ether Day Address) Boston M and S J. 1910;163:893-994.

2)    Crile GW. The Kinetic System. J Mich State Med Soc. 1915;14:75-86.

3)    Crile GW, et al. The Electrical Conductivity of Animal Tissues under Normal and Pathological Conditions. Am J Physiol. 1922;60:59-106.

4)    Crile GW, and Fricke H. Application of Biophysical Research to Medical Problems. Proc Am Phil Soc. 1922;61:237-245.

5)    Crile GW, et al. Biophysical Studies of the Effects of Various Drugs Upon the Temperature of the Brain and Liver. J Pharm And Exper Therapy. 1923;21:429-442.

6)    Crile GW, et al. The Electric Capacity of Animal Tissues under Normal and Pathological Conditions, Am J Physiol. 1926;76:320-324.

7)    Crile GW, Rowland AF, and Telkes M. Changes in the Electrical Potential of Tissues in Living Animals Under Normal and Pathological Conditions. Am J Physiol, 1928;85-86:362-3.

8)    Ibid. An Interpretation of Excitation, Exhaustion and Death in Terms of Physical Constraints. Proc Nat Acad Sci. 1928;14:532-538.

9)    Ibid. An Experimental Investigation of the Physical Nature of Death, Proc Am Philosoph Soc. 1929;68:69-81.

10) Crile GW, Telkes M, Rowland AF. The Nature of Living Cells: With special reference to the nature of cancer cells and fatty degeneration. Arch Surg. 1931;23(4):703-714. See:

11) Ibid. Autosynthetic Cells. Protoplasma. 1932;15:337-360.

12) Crile GW, et al. Further Studies of Autosynthetic Cells with Special Reference to the Possible Role of the Nitro group in the Energy Phenomena of Protoplasma. Proc Am Phil Soc. 1932;71:411-420.

13) Crile G. The Phenomena of Life. W.W. Norton & Co., Inc., New York, 1936.

14) Clowes GHA. On the Role Played by Electrolysis in Determining the Permeability of Protoplasm, Proc Am Soc Biol, 1916;XIV.

15) Beutner R. The Electromotive Action of Drugs as Their Cause of Toxicity, II. & III., J Pharm And Exper Therapy, 1927;32:101-120.

16) Harrison RG. Observations on the Living Developing Nerve Fiber, Proc Soc Exper Biol & Med, 1966-7;4:140-143.